All of the principles discussed above suggest that teachers, school leaders, educational policy leaders and other adults supporting young people's learning need particular attributes and capabilities that enable them to work effectively towards a future-oriented learning system. It is important to note that some of the approaches advocated for 21st century learning-and the ideas that underpin them-may differ from what today's teachers, school leaders and educational policy leaders experienced in their own school learning.
Teachers and school leaders may resist adapting current approaches if they don't see the need for change, or if they aren't convinced that adapting current approaches is possible, let alone likely to lead to better student outcomes. It is important to note here that many "21st century" ideas about what meaningful learning looks like, and how to support it, are actually not new. They have been around for a very long time and are well supported and practised by many teachers.
The challenge here is how to achieve a system shift that creates a more coherent educational ecology that can support what is known about good learning and that can accommodate new knowledge about learning and, importantly, new purposes for learning in a changing world. This means that education systems must be designed to incorporate what is known about adult learning and cognitive development as well as what is known about young people's learning and development. This has implications for thinking about professional learning approaches and structures for teachers and school leaders: Are adults in the education system able to access the kinds of learning supports that they need in order to be the best leaders for a future-oriented learning system?
Learning for the 21st century, it is argued, should support students to engage in knowledge-generating activities in authentic contexts. Students must learn to recognise and navigate authentic problems and challenges in ways that they are likely to encounter in future learning situations. However, today many learners encounter learning situations in which the "messiness" of the real world is simplified as contrived learning tasks with answers or outcomes already known to the teacher.
Teachers ought not to be the only people from whom young people learn. Teachers still need strong pedagogical knowledge, but they also need to be able to collaborate with other people who can provide specific kinds of expertise, knowledge or access to learning opportunities in community contexts. A final argument associated with this theme is that education and learning systems will not have traction to shift towards more 21st century approaches if this shift is not supported by the wider community. Public education is a collective good in which everyone has a stake. To do both requires community understanding of, support for and contribution to what is being attempted.
This "buy-in" could be achieved by engaging community members in authentic educational activities that draw on their expertise. The Ministry of Education expressed interest in exploring two subthemes within this work on 21st century teaching and learning. These are framed by the questions: "What is the role of current and emerging technologies? Yet, significant investments in digital resources have not revolutionised learning environments; to understand how they might requires attention to the nature of learning.
For the most part, educational thinking has moved on from the idea that simply introducing new ICT tools and infrastructure into schools will trigger beneficial and meaningful educational change.
New Perspectives In Primary Education
In New Zealand at least four strategies have been used to support educational ICT developments: providing enabling tools and infrastructure; providing inspiring ideas and opportunities to connect ideas; enhancing capability; and supporting innovation. Our analysis suggests that educational ICT development needs to be supported by all four strategies.
This synthesis identified a range of ideas and practices associated with ICT-some of which reflect 21st century ideas about teaching, learning and knowledge, and others which do not. The potential of new technologies to transform teaching and learning is heavily dependent on educators' abilities to see the affordances and capacities of ICT in relation to the underpinning themes for learning for the 21st century outlined in this report.
It is further dependent on schools having the infrastructure, inspiration, capability and opportunities for innovation to achieve these kinds of teaching and learning. While networking and clustering have become increasingly popular in education, the range of reasons for, and outcomes of, networking and collaboration are often unexamined. School networks can vary in terms of their goals which could include school improvement, broadening opportunities [including networking with nonschool agencies such as social services or business] or resource sharing , and their timescales, from short term to longer term relationships.
Networking and collaboration in themselves do not necessarily support the emergence of future-focused learning practice. However, research suggests that educational clustering and networking provide opportunities for professional learning and expanding ideas about what is possible. These three ideas are "diversity", "connectedness" and "coherence".
While these three key ideas inform all six of the key themes, they also allow us to see a way forward that goes beyond "ticking the boxes": that is, are schools personalising learning; are they educating for diversity as well as working to achieve success for all learners ; are they building learning capacity; are they reconceptualising the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students; are they engaged in continuous professional learning; and are they developing a range of new "real" partnerships with their communities? What is needed is, not more effort focused on the parts of this system, but strategies designed to put these ideas together : to join all this up in a way that is driven by a coherent set of shared ideas about the future of schooling and its purpose and role in building New Zealand's future.
Publication Details This research project draws together findings from new data and more than 10 years of research on current practice and futures-thinking in education. Date Published: June This report is available as a download please refer to the 'Downloads' inset box. Executive Summary It is widely argued that current educational systems, structures and practices are not sufficient to address and support learning needs for all students in the 21st century.
The work is guided by three high-level research questions: 1 What could future-oriented learning and teaching look like, what ideas and principles underpin it and what makes it different from other teaching and learning practices?
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What are the conditions that enable future-oriented learning and teaching? What are the issues and challenges? How might transformational future-oriented learning and teaching approaches be promoted, enabled and sustained? Why change is needed During the latter half of the 20th century, international thinking about education began to shift to a new paradigm.
New meanings for "knowledge" The terms "knowledge age" or "knowledge economy" refer to a reorganisation away from an Industrial Age economy, where exploitation of natural resources, primary production, mass production and bureaucratic management hierarchies were the standard model for economic development. New understandings about learning Research clearly shows that people do not learn well as "spectators", as passive recipients of pre-packaged, bite-sized pieces of knowledge delivered to them by experts: good learning requires active engagement in the "whole game".
A useful metaphor: "Unbundling" schools "Unbundling" is defined as "a process in which innovators deconstruct established structures and routines and reassemble them in newer, smarter ways". Emerging principles for a 21st century education system Theme 1: Personalising learning Personalising learning aligns with the idea that education systems must move away from an Industrial Age "one-size-fits-all" model. Theme 3: A curriculum that uses knowledge to develop learning capacity One of the biggest challenges for education in the 21st century is that our ideas about curriculum are currently underpinned by at least two quite different epistemologies , or models of what counts as knowledge.
This change from integration to inclusion came first in the USA during the s, and occurred later in Europe. Because of this origin, inclusion in a narrow perspective concerns placement of students receiving special education, about where the teaching is going on and together with whom. The dominating ideal theories of inclusive education state that students with disabilities shall be entitled to full membership in regular classes together with children from the same neighbourhood in local schools.
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There they should have access to differentiated and individualized support, programmes and assessments. Inclusive education then means to teach all students together in a normal school-class setting, where they all receive teaching that corresponds to their abilities and interests Anastasiou, Kauffman, and Di Nuovo ; Haug Inclusion introduces a new perspective on the poor educational performances of students.
An alternative way to practise the narrow approach is to define inclusive education not as full membership in a mainstream class but as the best place for learning. When deciding where to teach students, Warnock gives priority to where students experience the highest potential for learning, in combination with a feeling of belonging and well-being.
Benefit then becomes superior to fellowship and participation when deciding about placement, which also could be an argument for retaining special schools within an inclusive ideology.go to link
The Purpose of Education—According to Students
This is a rare standpoint, which represents a segregated discourse of inclusion Fulcher It is not in line with the most common definitions and theories. On the other hand, the tension between inclusion as learning opportunities and inclusion as placement in schools for all is a matter of contention Hansen and Qvortrup ; Norwich It illustrates the dilemmatic character of a multi-oriented concept of inclusion.
Dilemmas here could be that students with disabilities taught in ordinary class had less access to specialist services, and that separate settings could result in exclusion and devaluation Norwich The inclusive solution is to bring these two alternatives together and combine them. In practice however, the question of where often takes priority over how the students should be educated.
The danger is that access and placement will replace quality and benefit as the focus is on debates and practices of inclusive education, as became the case with integration. The broad definition of inclusion concerns all students and marginalized groups, not only those with disabilities Thomas This is in line with the Salamanca Declaration from , which covers all groups of students in danger of facing problems in school because of diversity UNESCO The declaration incorporates all students in danger of segregation and their right to participate in common learning activities within the ordinary school system, regardless of special needs, gender, ethnicity, culture, social background, etc.
The idea is that education develops human capital for everyone. Most of the international organizations that have shown interest in inclusive education have adopted this wide approach. Some inclusive theorists worry about the consequences of widening the inclusion territory, and criticize the broad definition.
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This could be a possible threat not only to inclusive theory but also to inclusive practices. Since the broad definition concerns not only persons with disabilities, there is a risk that the interests of those with disabilities might become secondary or even be overlooked when pursuing other minority interests, for instance related to gender or social class Norwich The notion is that governments and international organizations have assimilated and neutralized the concept by adopting it.
This formulation within a broader educational policy of regular schooling could contest and obscure inclusion Armstrong, Armstrong, and Spandagou ; Kreitz-Sandberg Under the vision of education for all, some countries have actually overlooked the issue of disability, and have not been able to provide education for the most disadvantaged students Miles and Singal Based on the value principles behind Education for All and inclusive education, these practices can be questioned.
On the other hand, based on the very same principles and values it is also unacceptable not to offer similar conditions for learning and development in school to all students. In order to fully understand the practices of inclusion, it is imperative to dwell upon the role of coherence.
Coherence means that the different educational systems and parts of these systems are connected and consistent with relation to inclusion Ferguson Then the different parts and levels would support each other, and improve the chances of achieving the ambitious objectives. Lack of consistency weakens the policy. This applies regardless of the definition of inclusive education. Brunsson emphasizes that absence of uncertainty and conflicts associated with ambitious activities and practices are important conditions for success.
If the students experience inclusion wherever and whenever they receive teaching, it is of course good for them. If our aim is inclusive schools, then inclusive pedagogy is essential, but not sufficient. Inclusive education does not only refer to the pedagogy in groups or classrooms.
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A country might have an inclusive policy, but not inclusive practices in schools, and vice versa, that is, have inclusive school practices but not an inclusive policy Haug ; Vislie Most European countries express an intention to realize inclusive education in accordance with the advanced definitions. However, the results of its implementation in practice are not at all convincing.
Even the practice of the narrow approach to inclusion varies a lot, and does not reflect the ideal definition as presented here. Changes are slow, few and there are many setbacks. One aspect of this is lack of relevant teacher competence Tangen , to which I will return later. In spite of formal decisions in favour of inclusion, tensions and even resistance because of lack of coherence and competing interests mark the implementation Arduin ; European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education a , b ; Ferguson ; Kiuppis ; Norwich There are many examples.