Guide Relato duma Viagem pela India Cingapura, Australia e China (Portuguese Edition)

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Hoe beoordeelt de Commissie de nieuwe Turkse internetwet die het de autoriteiten toestaat, naar believen, het internet te censureren — zonder tussenkomst van de rechter? Deelt de Commissie de mening dat dit een zeer ernstige, verdere inperking van de vrijheid van meningsuiting en expressie betekent? Daarom heeft de Commissie herhaaldelijk benadrukt dat er eerder minder dan meer beperkingen op de media nodig zijn in Turkije.

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Welke conclusies trekt de Commissie hieruit? Welke gevolgen heeft dit voor de toetredingsonderhandelingen? Hij zei onder meer dat er teveel klachten zijn over ongeoorloofde druk van de Turkse regering op journalisten. Deze uitspraken werden gedaan na vragen over de Turkse wet die het internetgebruik verder aan banden legt, wat manifest in strijd is met de criteria van Kopenhagen.

De gewijzigde wet voert het evenredigheidsbeginsel in en schaft gevangenisstraffen voor internetaanbieders af. De wet geeft echter aanleiding tot ongerustheid wegens de mogelijk arbitraire bevoegdheid van de Turkse Telecommunicatie-autoriteit en het ontbreken van voldoende bescherming en rechtszekerheid voor de betrokken partijen.

Het toegangsverbod dat de Turkse autoriteiten aan Twitter en YouTube hebben opgelegd, geeft ook aanleiding tot zware ongerustheid. Het recente besluit van het Constitutioneel Hof bevestigt dat het algehele verbod op Twitter een inbreuk vormde op het grondwettelijke recht op vrijheid van meningsuiting. De Commissie verwacht van de Turkse autoriteiten dat ze een einde maken aan het verbod op YouTube en een goed evenwicht vinden tussen de nationale veiligheid en de vrijheid van meningsuiting.

Het Europees Hof voor de rechten van de mens heeft duidelijk gesteld dat elke inmenging in de uitoefening van deze vrijheden aan een strikt toezicht door de rechter is onderworpen vanwege het kardinale belang van de rechten in kwestie. Met name elke inmenging in de toepassing van deze wet moet in verhouding staan tot het beoogde doel. De Commissie zal nauw toezien op de tenuitvoerlegging van deze wet, met inbegrip van elke beperking van de vrijheid van meningsuiting die een gevolg kan zijn van de toepassing van de wet door de nationale autoriteiten, en zal hierover verslag uitbrengen in haar volgende voortgangsverslag.

The new proposal is worrying because it contains unclear definitions, allows for arbitrary decisions and would increase government control over the Internet and providers. Freedom of expression, freedom of the media, and the rule of law are already increasingly under threat in Turkey, which remains the biggest jailer of journalists. Does the Commission agree that freedom of expression is increasingly under threat in Turkey?

Has the Commission addressed the issues of freedom of expression, freedom of the media in relation to the ongoing state crisis, and the lack of respect for the rule of law, in direct talks with the Turkish government recently? If not, when will it do so? Furthermore, website hosting companies will have to follow a programme under direct ministerial control.

This will use a database to check the web pages visited by Turkish users for two years. The Turkish Government justifies these restrictions as controlling cases of paedophilia and so protecting children. A peaceful demonstration recently took place against these measures in Istanbul.

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During it, however, there were many arrests. The Turkish Parliament has approved a new law on the Internet. What view does the Commission take of the new Turkish law on the Internet, which permits the authorities to censor the Internet in any way they choose without applying for a court order? Does the Commission agree that this is a very serious further restriction of freedom of expression? Therefore, the Commission has consistently emphasised that fewer, rather than more restrictions on media are needed in Turkey.

What conclusions does the Commission draw from this?


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What consequences will it have for the accession negotiations? A controversial law on controls over the Internet was recently proposed in the Turkish parliament. The new regulations provide the authorities with the means to block websites without a court order. Internet activity may also be monitored and the records stored for a period of two years. All this should allegedly serve to better protect personal rights on the Internet and to protect young people from damaging influences on the Internet such as drugs and pornography. In practice, the law gives the government the power to arbitrarily reach decisions regarding the blocking of content, and this equates to censorship.

Hundreds of activists who had called for demonstrations on the Internet were arrested as a result. What view does the Commission take of this further restriction of personal freedoms andcivil rights in Turkey? How does this proposal influence the accession negotiations that are currently taking place? The authorities are implementing new laws which will regulate the Internet more than ever before. As soon as the authorities inform them that a site is to be blocked, Internet service providers will have no more than four hours to do so. Service providers are also now obliged to retain data on users for two years and make them available to the authorities on demand.

The demonstrations were broken up by the police using water cannons, tear gas and rubber bullets. Do the accession chapters which are open with Turkey include talks on the rights of citizens and Internet users? Recent developments in Turkey with the newly introduced Internet censorship represent a clear violation of human rights.

The so-called Internet reform seriously damages the right to freedom of expression, since the law allows the government telecommunications authorities to block any webpages at their own discretion, without any prior judicial decision. Moreover, the law gives the authorities the possibility of storing all access data for the websites visited by users for two years, which seriously compromises the right to privacy. What steps will the High Representative take to persuade the Turkish authorities, who appear not to have been swayed by the recent protests in the country, to put an end to these violations of fundamental rights?

In adopting a law recently imposing stricter controls on the Internet, the Turkish government is undermining the right to unrestricted use of the Internet.

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This law further restricts freedom of expression and communication and the right of citizens to free access to information. The new law allows the government authority responsible for telecommunications TIB to block any website at will, without the need for any judicial decision. Freedom of expression is once again under attack in Turkey.

The Department of Telecommunications will also have the power to require providers to block sites whose content violates privacy, without the prior authorisation of the courts. Since accession talks began, the Commission has so far limited itself to calling on Ankara to amend legal provisions that restrict freedom of expression. According to a number of representatives of the Turkish press, various editorial teams are being put under intense political pressure by political parties or by their own management boards, whose members are often close to powerful political figureheads.

And it is the journalists who remain loyal to the principles of independence — in short, the type of journalist that should be found in all press organisations — who are bearing the brunt of the situation, with punishments, and even sackings, often being metered out.


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The situation has grown even worse over the last week following the passing of a law, condemned by the opposition as a further nail in the coffin of freedom, that makes it easier for websites to be shut down and gives the Turkish Telecommunications Authority the power to monitor user activity on the Internet. The law now only needs to be signed by the Turkish President in order to be ratified. The Turkish parliament has adopted an act permitting the state authorities to increase controls over the Internet.

Defenders of online freedom of speech and the opposition are critical of the new law. Deputies of the Grand National Assembly have granted consent for the telecommunications office, without a court order, to block websites which it claims have breached privacy. The Act provides for a register of user activity, which Internet service providers will be able to keep. This register will be kept for two years and made available to the authorities on request without notifying users.

Is the Commission monitoring the observance of free speech over the Internet in Turkey on an on-going basis? Will the Commission raise this issue during membership negotiations and if so, how will it attempt to persuade Turkey to cease taking such legal measures? This was in response to questions regarding Turkish legislation imposing further restrictions on the use of Internet in obvious breach of the Copenhagen criteria. The Turkish Government has voted on a set of regulations making it possible for its Information and Communication Technologies Authority to block web content, shut down websites and request information on their visitors, without the backing of warrants from the judiciary.

As Turkey is one of the countries negotiating EU accession and ought, as such, to respect human rights and the precedents of the European Court of Human Rights, how does the Commission intend to intervene? The amended law introduces the concept of proportionality and eliminates prison sentences for Internet Service Providers. However, it raises concerns related to the potentially arbitrary power of the Telecommunication Communications Presidency and to the absence of sufficient protection and legal safeguards for affected parties.

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PDF Relato duma Viagem pela India Cingapura, Australia e China (Portuguese Edition)

The access bans to Twitter and YouTube imposed by the Turkish authorities raise grave concerns. The recent decision of the Constitutional Court confirms that the blanket ban on Twitter constituted an infringement of the Constitutional right to freedom of expression. Accordingly, the Commission expects the Turkish authorities to lift the ban on YouTube and find the appropriate balance between national security and freedom of expression.

The Commission recalls that freedom of expression includes the freedom to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority. The European Court of Human Rights made it clear that any interference with the exercise of such freedoms requires strict supervision by the courts due to the cardinal importance of the rights in question.

In particular, any individual interference in the application of such law must be proportionate to the aim pursued. The Commission will closely monitor the implementation of this law, including any limitation imposed on freedom of expression as a result of its application by the national authorities, and will report on this issue in its forthcoming progress report. They can also be accessed on certain websites, but many people whose lives they directly affect have to go to great lengths by themselves in order to get hold of the official texts.

That is why I think that a lot more could be done on this point to reduce the democratic deficit and bring Europe closer to ordinary citizens. Several measures have been taken to link the content on the EUR-Lex website with law published at national level, in order to simplify access for citizens. Certain Member States re-publish EU legislation in national gazettes. This decision falls under their sole responsibility. Visto il regolamento CE n. Il regolamento RDC non prevede uno stanziamento finanziario minimo per l'attuazione di ciascuna strategia di comunicazione.

Considering that the aforementioned regulations make communication plans compulsory and stipulate that the relevant resources — for each programme under the Structural Funds — must be proportionate to the need for adequate information on these programmes;.

Considering that it has emerged that some of the individual management authorities responsible for implementing each communication plan — particularly in the case of undeveloped regions such as Sicily — are failing to comply with their obligation as regards communication plans, which are a vital tool for ensuring that regions and businesses are fully informed;. The Commission is not aware of any irregularity or breach of the obligations ensuing from the regulations with respect to communication activities in the regional programme for Sicily.

Should any evidence to the contrary emerge, the Commission will take all necessary steps to protect the EU's financial interests. The Commission will ensure that this provision will be respected. The CPR regulation does not provide for any minimum financial allocation for the implementation of each communication strategy.

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