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This thesis proposed a rational design approach towards molecularly imprinted polymers MIPs for sensing nitro-explosives. Molecularly imprinted polymers are mimicking biological molecular recognition.

They have the advantage to be stable in harsh environments and can be tailored into different physical forms for interfacing with transducers. While most other free radical polymerizations do not require such extreme temperatures and pressures, they do tend to lack control. One effect of this lack of control is a high degree of branching.

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Also, as termination occurs randomly, when two chains collide, it is impossible to control the length of individual chains. A newer method of polymerization similar to free radical, but allowing more control involves the Ziegler—Natta catalyst , especially with respect to polymer branching.

Other forms of chain growth polymerization include cationic addition polymerization and anionic addition polymerization. While not used to a large extent in industry yet due to stringent reaction conditions such as lack of water and oxygen, these methods provide ways to polymerize some monomers that cannot be polymerized by free radical methods such as polypropylene.

Cationic and anionic mechanisms are also more ideally suited for living polymerizations , although free radical living polymerizations have also been developed. Esters of acrylic acid contain a carbon-carbon double bond which is conjugated to an ester group. This allows the possibility of both types of polymerization mechanism.

An acrylic ester by itself can undergo chain-growth polymerization to form a homopolymer with a carbon-carbon backbone, such as poly methyl methacrylate.

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Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Using Two-Photon Polymerization

In this case the polymerization proceeds by step-growth and the products are poly beta-amino ester copolymers , with backbones containing nitrogen as amine and oxygen as ester as well as carbon. To produce a high-molecular-weight, uniform product, various methods are employed to better control the initiation, propagation, and termination rates during chain polymerization and also to remove excess concentrated heat during these exothermic reactions compared to polymerization of the pure monomer also referred to as bulk polymerization.

These include emulsion polymerization , solution polymerization , suspension polymerization , and precipitation polymerization. Although the polymer polydispersity and molecular weight may be improved, these methods may introduce additional processing requirements to isolate the product from a solvent. Most photopolymerization reactions are chain-growth polymerizations which are initiated by the absorption of visible [10] or ultraviolet light.

Cross-Linked and Hyper-Branched Polymers

The light may be absorbed either directly by the reactant monomer direct photopolymerization , or else by a photosensitizer which absorbs the light and then transfers energy to the monomer. In general only the initiation step differs from that of the ordinary thermal polymerization of the same monomer; subsequent propagation, termination and chain transfer steps are unchanged.

A propagation cycle is not initiated because each growth step requires the assistance of light. Photopolymerization can be used as a photographic or printing process, because polymerization only occurs in regions which have been exposed to light.

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Unreacted monomer can be removed from unexposed regions, leaving a relief polymeric image. Multiphoton polymerization using single pulses have also been demonstrated for fabrication of complex structures using a digital micromirror device. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. IUPAC definition.

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Lecture 12 BioE 5820 Biomaterials Free Radical Polymerization and ATRP

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Properties of Cross-Linked Polymers and Copolymers |

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