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Born in Kharkiv , Yanko completed the first part of his musical studies in his native town at Special Music School Since , he has conducted at the Kharkiv Opera House, where he has staged many opera and ballet performances. Since Yanko has worked as Music Director and Principal Conductor of the Academic Symphony Orchestra of Kharkiv Philharmonic , and in he was appointed Director of the Kharkiv Philharmonic which involves several different musical collectives, including the orchestra.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Pride of place must go to the Orphic Theogony.

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Unfortunately, neither its date nor place of origin is known. It is very likely that there was more than one, but the oldest example that allows us to have some idea of the Orphic theogony ies? Its quotation of the Orphic poem, though, is incomplete due to the burning of the papyrus, but also to the fact that the author may have left out whole passages. Any reconstruction of its original content should, therefore, be handled very carefully.

Consequently, this indicates an ultimate origin from an Attic, poetic and Orphic source. From this evidence, I conclude that Orphic theogonies were probably also composed in Attica in the fifth century.


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He seems to be a fictitious person, as Martin West has noted, 74 but the mention is remarkable. Surely, he owed his name to the fact that he also told his descent in the first person singular above. As Camarina was a town with close ties to Athens, 75 influence from that quarter is not unthinkable. Unfortunately, the scarcity of fragments means that we cannot say anything more. But this is not really necessary. If the text from which the quote was taken belonged to a collection of hymns, it may indeed have been known as the Hymns. It probably also contained an aition of the Thesmophoria in order to facilitate the adoption of Eubouleus by Eleusis from his original Heimat on the Cycladic islands.

There is simply not a trace of it and, in fact, it is very improbable. The orpheotelestai OF , I suggest, are further inheritors of this tradition.

In the course of time, society moved on, and Plato and other philosophers started to look down on them. Yet there is no reason to see them as charlatans or Schwindler. I doubt it. This is of course not the case in Orphic literature, which was extremely fluid in its texts. Is the one literature, the other religion?

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The Rights of the Roma by Celia Donert

Or the Orphic Theogony? The choice of subject may be surprising in a discussion of polis religion. Yet it should be clear that Greek myths were important media for conveying information on gods, heroes and other supernatural beings that were worshipped by the Greeks. Starting at about BC we see the rise of authors who collected Greek myths and began to systematize them.

They were not, however, just putting the mythological house in order, so to speak, but also changing the tradition. Nevertheless, we must not fail to note that these rationalising changes also will have contributed to the secularisation of the inherited mythological tradition. I see at least two different strategies here.

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First we have the one employed by Acusilaus, who was, by all accounts, one of the oldest mythographers. He said, presumably in the proem of his Genealogies , 93 that he had found his history on bronze tablets, which his father had dug up in his house. The strategy of authentification by finding an old manuscript was well known in antiquity and also employed by Euhemerus.

This would hardly have happened if his work had just been an enumeration of genealogies. It deserves to be better known. For Christiane, Greek religion is above all:. He, in turn, was inspired by the perhaps most famous definition of religion at that time, which was developed by Clifford Geertz Geertz defines religion in the following way:.

Rather, she argued, for religion having a social nature or, in a more poetical formulation, the Greek polis as having a religious heart. Can we apply his thoughts to a really big and literate city as late classical Athens was? By concentrating on civic religion, we get a more harmonious picture of religious life as a whole than was the case in reality. Moreover, the focus on and inspiration by Durkheimian thought perhaps lead to a certain overvaluation of public cultic practice above private activities and of religious performance above religious thinking and speculation.

For the latter, the arrival of literacy was undoubtedly an important factor, even though religious thinking was certainly not limited to literate societies.


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  • First, religion is more than cult. Regarding the Christian tradition one could fairly say that many books on its history concentrate on its big thinkers and theologians. It is only in recent times that research has started to concentrate more on everyday Christian life, a focus which, of course, is more difficult the more one retreats in time. In the study of Greek religion it is rather the reverse. Although the major handbooks do pay attention to the religious role of poets and philosophers, one never gets the feeling that this is seen as an important part of the history of Greek religion.

    It is probably symbolic that both Nilsson and Burkert treat them towards the ends of their handbooks, whereas Wilamowitz does not give them any special attention at all.

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    Who actually had the power to shape and control that religion? In general, we can say that the polis community often exerts control. The case of Socrates is perhaps the most obvious example, but we might also think of the banishment of Diagoras and the reports of attacks on other fifth-century intellectuals because of their atheism.

    We know that circa BC, for example, the secretary Nicomachus drew up a new calendar for public sacrifices, which seems to have omitted some of the older sacrifices. There can be little doubt that such matters were under the control of the polis , even though we do not have detailed information about the public scrutiny of his proposals. The other side is the shaping of new ideas or the testing of old ones, a side of religion that was always problematic from the perspective of the Durkheimian approach with its stress on the hegemony of tradition and ritual.

    The tragedies or the Odes of Pindar were performed in public, be it in front of larger or smaller audiences. Here too we could perhaps still speak of the control of the polis or, in less democratic ones, of its rulers. For example, Pindar may well have thought about what religiosity Theron favoured before he composed his Second Olympian Ode.

    We do not know how the oldest Orphic poetry was spread over Greece, but the Derveni papyrus demonstrates that around BC people could read this poetry and even study its commentaries. Its authority must have been the name of Orpheus. The loss of most of that poetry makes us forget that the prestige of Orpheus as poet was enormously high in the fifth century. According to a set of fifth-century historians, which include Pherecydes and Hellanicus, Homer was a descendent from Orpheus as was Hesiod.

    There is nothing in our fifth-century tradition that points into that direction. Orphic poetry was well-known in Athens in the fifth century, and accepted in the best circles of the Athenian population. Some of its figures e.


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    • Eubouleus, Brimo were even incorporated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. Sure enough, compared to him they undoubtedly were second-rate theologians and had to really work for a living. In the case of the former, Cimon, Nicias and Alcibiades all employed private seers, sometimes even a number of them. The same must be true of the professionals that wrote and sold magical formulae. This introduces a distinction that is modern and not warranted by Athenian evidence. The margins of that religion, however, were perhaps much messier than Christiane liked to think. Buxton ed. Hansen, Polis : an introduction to the ancient Greek city-state , Oxford, , p.

      Parker, Polytheism and Society at Athens , Oxford, , p. Bakis ; schol. Hellholm ed. I, 96; IG V 1, ; Tert.

      I, 95; K. Johnston, P. Six days later, however, he was again stripped of the title. Trollmann, of Sinti heritage, arrived the day of the match with his hair dyed blonde and his face whitened with flour, the caricature of an Aryan. He took the blows of his opponent as he was asked for five rounds before he collapsed. The persecution of Sinti and Roma in Germany dramatically increased in the following years.